Assessment of Groundwater Recharge Potential in the Northern Parts of Auchi and Environs, Edo State, Nigeria, Using Geospatial Techniques

Authors(5) :-Benibo Tekena, Abayomi Alaga, Henry U. Okeke, Ebikare I. Benibo, Kappo Ayorinde

Groundwater accounts for about 30% of earth’s freshwater, the demand for this natural resource is increasing due to rapid industrialization and population growth,  leading to its scarcity in some regions, Auchi is an area experiencing groundwater stress, were water table depth decreases rapidly and boreholes have to be drilled to great depths to get this scarce resource. The replenishment of this resource to a groundwater flow system is groundwater recharge.

The study aims to delineate groundwater recharge potential zones of the northern part of Edo state comprising of Auchi and sorrounding communities, utilizing remote sensing, geospatial techniques and weighted index overlay analysis model. Six multi-influencing factors of lithology, soil cover, lineament density, drainage density, land use and land cover and slope were all generated from Landsat ETM, topographic map and shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) data, producing the various thematic layers. The multi-layers were then reclassed and weighed according to their varying influence to groundwater recharge.

The resultant groundwater recharge potential map revealed that majority of the study area, comprised partly of the hilly terrain of the north eastern and north western part and the gentle slope regions had moderate recharge, while parts of the south eastern and south western part of Auchi had low groundwater recharge. This research could serve as a base line study for future groundwater studies  in the area.

Authors and Affiliations

Benibo Tekena
Cooperative Information Network, National Space Research and Development Agency, O.A.U, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Abayomi Alaga

Henry U. Okeke

Ebikare I. Benibo

Kappo Ayorinde

Groundwater Recharge, Remote Sensing, Weighted overlay, Geospatial.

  1. Danskin, W.R., (1998) Evaluation of the Hydrologic system and selected water Management alternatives in the Owens Valley, California: USGS Water-Supply paper 2370, 175p
  2. Edet, A.E., Okereke C.S., Teme S.C., and Esu, E.O. 1998. Application of remote sensing data to groundwater exploration: a case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. Hydrogeol J 6:394–404
  3. El-Baz, F., and Himida, I.1995. Groundwater potential of the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt, Project Summery, AID, Cairo
  4. Fernandes, A., and Rudolph, D. (2001). The Influence of Cenozoic tectonics on the groundwater production capacity of fractured zones: a case study in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hydogeol Journal. 9: 151-167
  5. Ghayoumian, J., Saravi, M.M., Feiznia, S., Nouri, B., and Malekian, A., 2007.Application ofGIS techniques to determine areas most suitable for arti?cial groundwaterrecharge in a coastal aquifer in southern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences30, 364e374
  6. Heath, R.C. 1983. Basic Groundwater hydrology. USGS water supply Paper 2220: 84p. Denver, C.O.
  7. Irukpen, 2009: Water Conservation in Edo State, Edo State Ministry of Water Resources Quarterly Report.
  8. Javed , A and Wani, M.H. (2009) . Delineation of groundwater potential zone in Kakund watershed, Eastern Rajasthan, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geol. Soc. India 73, Pp229-236.
  9. Jha, M.K., Chowdary, V.M., and Chowdhury, A. 2010. Groundwater Assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) Using remote sensing and  geographic information system and multi criteria decision analysis techniques.  Hydrogeology Journal 18:1713-1728.
  10. Krishnamurthy, J., Mani, A., Jayaraman, V., and Manivel, M. 2000. Groundwater resources development in hard rock terraineAn approach using remote sensing   and GIS techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and  Geoinformation 2 (3e4), 204e215.
  11. Lean, G., and Hinrichsen, D. 1990. Atlas of the environment. New York, prentice hall press.
  12. Magesh, N., Chandrasekar, N., and John, P. (2012). Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, Using Remote Sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Journal ofgeosciences frontiers. 3(2) Pp189-196.
  13. Magowe, M., and Carr, J.R. 1999. Relationship between lineaments and groundwater occurrence in Western Botswana, Ground Water, 37 (2). 282-286.
  14. Manikandan, J., Kiruthika, A.M., and Sureshbabu, S. 2014. Evaluation of groundwaterpotential zones in Krishnagiri district , Tmil Nadu Using MIF International journal of innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol3(3), 10524- 10534
  15. Nag, S.K. (2005). Application of lineament density and hydrogemorphology to delineate groundwater potential zones of Baghmundi block in Prulia district, west  Bengal, Jour. Indian Soc. Remotes sensing, 33, 521-529
  16. Nagarajan, M., and Singh, S.2009. Assessment of groundwater potential zones usingGIS technique. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 37, 69e77.
  17. Narendra, K., Rao, K.N., and Latha, P.S. 2013. Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS for Identification of Groundwater Prospective Zones in Narava Basin, Visakhapatnam Region, Andhra Pradesh, Journal Geological Society of India 81:248-260.
  18. Pratap, K., Ravindran, K.V., and Prabakaran, B. 2000. Groundwater prospect zoning using remote sensing and geographical information system: A case study in Dala-Renukoot Area, Sonbhadra District Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Society and Remote Sensing 28(4): 249-26
  19. Riad, P.H., Billib, M., Hassan, A.A., Salam, M.A., and El Din, M.N. 2011. Application of the overlay weighted model and Boolean logic to determine the best locations for arti?cial recharge of groundwater. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering 5 (2), 57e66.
  20. Senanayake, I.P., Dissanayake, D.M.D.O.K., Mayadunna, B.B., and Weerasekera W.L.2016. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques. Journal of Geosciences frontier 7 (2016) 115-125 p
  21. Sener, E., Davraz, A., and Ozcelik, M. 2005. An integration of GIS and remote sensing in groundwater investigations: a case study in Burdur, Turkey. HydrogeologyJournal 13 (5e6), 826e834.
  22. Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., and Abdallah, C.2006. Use of remote sensing and GIS todetermine recharge potential zones: the case of Occidental Lebanon. HydrogeologyJournal 14 (4), 433e443.
  23. Shiklomanov, I. 1993. World fresh water resources. In: Gleick, P.H. (Ed.), Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources. Oxford University Press, New York.
  24. Solomon, S., and Quiel, F.2006. Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea. Hydrogeology Journal 14 (6), 1029e1041.
  25. Sophocleous, M. 2002. Interactions between groundwater and surface water: the state of the science. Hydrogeology Journal 10 (1), 52e67.
  26. Subagunasekar, M., and Sashikkumar, M.C. 2012. GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone in Karunkulam block, Thoothukudi  district, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Current Science 159e162.
  27. Subba, R.N.(2009). A numerical scheme for groundwater development in a watershed basin of basement terrain: a case study from India. Hydrogeology Journal 17:379-396.
  28. Tweed, S.O., Leblanc, M., Webb, J.A., and Lubczynski, M.W. 2007. Remote sensing andGIS for mapping groundwater recharge and discharge areas in salinity pronecatchments, southeastern Australia. Hydrogeology Journal 15 (1), 75e96.
  29. Wada, Y., van Beek, L.P., van Kempen, C.M., Reckman, J.W., Vasak, S., and Bierkens, M.F.2010. Global depletion of groundwater resources. Geophysical Research Letters37 (20), L20402.
  30. Winter, T.C., Harvey, J.W., Franke, O.L., and Alley, W.M. 1998.Ground Water and surface water—a single resource: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1139, 79p.
  31. Yeh, H.-F., Lee, C.-H., Hsu, K.-C and Chang, P.-H. 2008. GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone. Environ Geol 58: 185-195.
  32. Yeh, H.F., Lee, C.H., Hsu , K.C., and Chang, P.H., 2009. GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone. Environmental Geology 58 (1), 185-195.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 2 | September-October 2016
Date of Publication : 2016-10-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 58-64
Manuscript Number : CSEIT16128
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

ISSN : 2456-3307

Cite This Article :

Benibo Tekena, Abayomi Alaga, Henry U. Okeke, Ebikare I. Benibo, Kappo Ayorinde, "Assessment of Groundwater Recharge Potential in the Northern Parts of Auchi and Environs, Edo State, Nigeria, Using Geospatial Techniques", International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology (IJSRCSEIT), ISSN : 2456-3307, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp.58-64, September-October-2016.
Journal URL :

Article Preview