Secured Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs)

Authors(4) :-S. Maharaja, R. Jeyalakshmi, A.V. Sabarish Kanna, M. Deva Priya

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is prone to attacks. Adversaries take hold of the network, thus degrading their performance. Various attacks are prevalent in MANET, out of which Byzantine attack plays a vital role. A node or group of nodes present in the routing path between the source and the destination may be compromised due to Byzantine attack. In this paper, Cohen Kappa Reliability Coefficient based Mitigation (CKRCM) mechanism is proposed to deal with these attacks. The intermediate nodes are monitored by their neighbors for a timestamp. If the monitoring node does not receive an acknowledgment, then the nodes are perceived to be attacked. The trustworthiness of the nodes is built by computing the trusts and reliabilities of the nodes. It is seen that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing scheme in terms of Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Packet Loss Ratio (PLR).

Authors and Affiliations

S. Maharaja
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
R. Jeyalakshmi
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
A.V. Sabarish Kanna
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
M. Deva Priya
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

MANET, Byzantine Attack, Cohen Kappa Reliability Coefficient, Trust Factor, Reliability

  1. Henry, P.S., & Lou, H. (2002). Wi-Fi: what's next, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, pp. 66-72.
  2. Murthy, C. S. R., & Manoj, B. S. (2004). Ad hoc wireless networks: Architectures and protocols, portable documents. Pearson education.
  3. Rauschert, P., Honarbacht, A., & Kummert, A. (2004, September). On the IEEE 802.11 IBSS and its timer synchronization function in multi-hop ad hoc networks. In Wireless Communication Systems, 2004, 1st International Symposium on (pp. 304-308). IEEE.
  4. Perkins, C. E., & Bhagwat, P. (1994, October). Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. In ACM SIGCOMM computer communication review (Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 234-244). ACM.
  5. Basagni, S., Conti, M., Giordano, S., & Stojmenovic, I. (Eds.). (2004). Mobile ad hoc networking. John Wiley & Sons.
  6. Humayun Bakht, “Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Network”, International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research, 2010-2011.
  7. Royer, E. M., & Toh, C. K. (1999). A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE personal communications, 6(2), 46-55.
  8. Kush, A., Taneja, S., & Sharma, D. (2010, December). Energy efficient Routing for MANET. In Methods and Models in Computer Science (ICM2CS), 2010 International Conference on (pp. 112-116). IEEE.
  9. Johnson, D. B., & Maltz, D. A. (1996). Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. Mobile computing, 153-181.
  10. Mahdipour, E., Rahmani, A. M., & Aminian, E. (2009, March). Performance evaluation of destination-sequenced distance-vector (dsdv) routing protocol. In Future Networks, 2009 International Conference on (pp. 186-190). IEEE.
  11. Park, V. D., Macker, J. P., & Corson, M. S. (1998, October). Applicability of the temporally-ordered routing algorithm for use in mobile tactical networks. In Military Communications Conference, 1998. MILCOM 98. Proceedings, IEEE (Vol. 2, pp. 426-430). IEEE.
  12. Shafiq, Z., Mahmud, S. A., Khan, G. M., Sayyed, A., & Al-Raweshidy, H. S. (2012, October). Zone Routing Protocol: How does it perform the other way round?. In ICT Convergence (ICTC), 2012 International Conference on (pp. 71-77). IEEE.
  13. Kush, A., Taneja, S., & Sharma, D. (2010, December). Energy efficient Routing for MANET. In Methods and Models in Computer Science (ICM2CS), 2010 International Conference on (pp. 112-116). IEEE.
  14. Tseng, Y. C., & Hsieh, T. Y. (2002, October). Fully power-aware and location-aware protocols for wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In Computer Communications and Networks, 2002. Proceedings. Eleventh International Conference on (pp. 608-613). IEEE.
  15. Geetha, A, and Sreenath, N, Byzantine Attacks and its Security Measures in Mobile Adhoc Networks, Int'l Journal of Computing, Communications & Instrumentation Engg. (IJCCIE) Vol. 3, Issue 1 (2016) ISSN 2349-1469 EISSN 2349-1477.
  16. Charles, D., Jain, K., & Lauter, K. (2006, March). Signatures for network coding. In Information Sciences and Systems, 2006 40th Annual Conference on (pp. 857-863). IEEE.
  17. Lamport, L.; Shostak, R.; Pease, M. (1982). "The Byzantine Generals Problem" (PDF). ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems. 4 (3): 382–401.
  18. Perlman, R., Network Layer Protocols with Byzantine Robustness, MIT Thesis, August 1988.
  19. Awerbuch, B., Holmer, D., & Rubens, H. (2003). Provably secure competitive routing against proactive Byzantine adversaries via reinforcement learning. John Hopkins University, Tech. Rep.
  20. Awerbuch, B., Curtmola, R., Holmer, D., Nita-Rotaru, C. and H. Rubens, Mitigating Byzantine Attacks in AdHoc Wireless Networks, SecureCom’05, September 2005.
  21. Vempaty, A., Ozdemir, O., Agrawal, K., Chen, H., & Varshney, P. K. (2013). Localization in wireless sensor networks: Byzantines and mitigation techniques. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 61(6), 1495-1508.
  22. Kailkhura, B., Brahma, S., Han, Y. S., & Varshney, P. K. (2013, May). Optimal distributed detection in the presence of Byzantines. In ICASSP (pp. 2925-2929).
  23. Han, K., Ravindran, B., & Jensen, E. D. (2007, September). Byzantine-tolerant, information propagation in untrustworthy and unreliable networks. In International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems (pp. 207-216). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  24. Baras, J. S., Radosavac, S., Theodorakopoulos, G., Sterne, D., Budulas, P., & Gopaul, R. (2007, October). Intrusion detection system resiliency to byzantine attacks: The case study of wormholes in OLSR. In Military Communications Conference, 2007. MILCOM 2007. IEEE (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
  25. Jafarisiavoshani, M., Fragouli, C., & Diggavi, S. (2007, July). Subspace properties of randomized network coding. In Information Theory for Wireless Networks, 2007 IEEE Information Theory Workshop on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
  26. El-Hajj, W., Safa, H., & Guizani, M. (2011). Survey of security issues in cognitive radio networks. J. Internet Tech., 12(2), 181-198.
  27. He, X., Dai, H., & Ning, P. (2013). A byzantine attack defender in cognitive radio networks: The conditional frequency check. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 12(5), 2512-2523.
  28. Nie, G., Ding, G., Zhang, L., & Wu, Q. (2017). Byzantine Defense in Collaborative Spectrum Sensing via Bayesian Learning. IEEE Access.
  29. Castro, M., Druschel, P., Ganesh, A., Rowstron, A., & Wallach, D. S. (2002). Secure routing for structured peer-to-peer overlay networks. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 36(SI), 299-314.
  30. Awerbuch, B., Holmer, D., Nita-Rotaru, C., & Rubens, H. (2002, September). An on-demand secure routing protocol resilient to byzantine failures. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Wireless security (pp. 21-30). ACM.
  31. Avramopoulos, I., Kobayashi, H., Wang, R. and A. Krishnamurthy, Highly Secure and Efficient Routing, INFOCOM’04, March 2004.
  32. Awerbuch, B., Cole, R. G., Curtmola, R., Holmer, D., & Rubens, H. (2006). Dynamics of learning algorithms for the on-demand secure byzantine routing protocol. Lecture notes in computer science, 4357, 98.
  33. Curtmola, R., & Nita-Rotaru, C. (2009). BSMR: byzantine-resilient secure multicast routing in multihop wireless networks. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 8(4), 445-459.
  34. Chen, R., Park, J. M., & Bian, K. (2008, April). Robust distributed spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. In INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE (pp. 1876-1884). IEEE.
  35. Marano, S., Matta, V., & Tong, L. (2009). Distributed detection in the presence of Byzantine attacks. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 57(1), 16-29.
  36. Rawat, A. S., Anand, P., Chen, H., & Varshney, P. K. (2011). Collaborative spectrum sensing in the presence of byzantine attacks in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 59(2), 774-786.
  37. Li, Z., & Oechtering, T. J. (2014, May). Tandem distributed Bayesian detection with privacy constraints. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 8168-8172). IEEE.
  38. Kailkhura, B., Han, Y. S., Brahma, S., & Varshney, P. K. (2015). Distributed Bayesian detection in the presence of Byzantine data. IEEE transactions on signal processing, 63(19), 5250-5263.
  39. Hashlamoun, W., Brahma, S., & Varshney, P. K. (2017). Mitigation of Byzantine Attacks on Distributed Detection Systems using Audit Bits. IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 5 | Issue 2 | March-April 2019
Date of Publication : 2019-04-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 277-289
Manuscript Number : CSEIT195275
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

ISSN : 2456-3307

Cite This Article :

S. Maharaja, R. Jeyalakshmi, A.V. Sabarish Kanna, M. Deva Priya, "Secured Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) ", International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology (IJSRCSEIT), ISSN : 2456-3307, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp.277-289, March-April-2019. Available at doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/CSEIT195275
Journal URL : http://ijsrcseit.com/CSEIT195275

Article Preview